Green-tech stands for green technology, that is, a technology that uses clean, renewable energy. Green tech is our future to solve the environmental crisis. Ecological, “clean” or “green” technology aims to preserve the environment through a wide range of technological and technical solutions.
The most important green tech features are the production and storage of energy from renewable sources such as sun, water, wind, geothermal, and bioenergy. Increasing green tech using will help with sustainable waste and water management. Green technology promotes sustainable mobility, for example, for alternative fuels, electric vehicles.
It has a positive effect on efficient use of resources and materials new materials, sustainable design) and energy efficiency, for example, energy-efficient buildings.
The achievements of green tech are numerous:
- solar panels,
- wind turbines,
- geothermal pumps,
- composting toilets,
- piezoelectric floors,
- paper biodegradable batteries,
- 3D printers
Humankind’s need for energy is growing, and so is the need for resources. But, every year, we have fewer and fewer non-renewable energy sources. To optimize resources, we need to turn to renewable sources as well as the technologies that use those sources. The contribution of green tech to the world economy is enormous. With the increase in the number of companies and organizations that use green technology, we have a natural decrease in the use of other resources, such as paper, oil, etc.
The transition of large corporations to green tech is significant for environmental preservation. Those companies are the world’s biggest consumers of energy. Probably the biggest contribution of green technology to the preservation of the environment is the reduction of global deforestation due to the production of huge amounts of paper, which were used earlier. We no longer have to go to the shops with our cars to get the products we want – this reduces the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but also the consumption of energy for heating, cooling and lighting in the shops.
Green Tech- transport
Whatever we do, we take into account the impact on the environment. Since travel is an important part of our lives, we understand the need to produce vehicles that do not affect the environment and at the same time provide enjoyment, economy, and comfort. All the decisions you make when buying a car affect the planet’s health and a better future for everyone. Green car models are not only good for the environment, but they are also equipped with a technique that will make driving a pleasure. They contribute to a healthier environment, fuel economy, safer driving, and a different view of transportation. In these cars, fuel consumption is reduced, and thus energy is recycled during engine braking.
Electric cars are another example of green tech. Here a list of the top 15 of the best electric vehicles in 2021.
Every technology requires energy
The last important fact in the history of energy is power. Those who control have power energy sources and technology of exploitation of these sources. The energy use is ruled by those who control energy resources. It could be one of the main reasons for not enough usage of solar energy. The sun emits huge ones of the earth quantities of energy. However, that energy is scattered, and no one cannot have exclusive control. Due to this distribution of solar energy, it would probably be the most suitable the way it was used was to build small power plants. That way, there would be no centralization and accumulation of power, which is the case with non-renewable sources of energy.
Renewable-green energy sources:
- Sun radiation
- Wind power
- Water movement
Solar energy technology
The simplest way to use solar energy is to obtain thermal energy. In most cases, these are systems for reheating sanative water. Simpler systems have only one circulation circuit, where sanitary water passes directly through solar collectors, but such systems are not suitable for areas where freezing occurs in winter. For this reason, a fluid with a low freezing point is used in the primary circulation. Classic solar collectors consist of a series of parallel copper pipes through which the primary fluid flows. The upper side of the solar collector is covered with appropriate glass, and the lower part contains an insulating base to reduce heat losses. The efficiency of such systems in practice ranges from 50-60%.
Solar collectors with vacuum tubes are a somewhat more complex construction. Inside each glass is a copper tube, where a specific fluid takes place during heating. Tubular solar collectors have an efficiency of up to 80%, and thanks to the development of technology and mass production, their price is almost equal. The main advantage of tubular collectors is that even in the colder period of the year, they can transfer energy to the system because they generate slightly higher temperatures than conventional collectors. Mention should also be made of solar collectors with air as the primary fluid.
These systems are usually not highly efficient. However, they are economical construction compensates for the stated shortcomings in places where their application is possible. The most vital elements of any solar power plant are photovoltaic panels. They are convenient for series and parallel order to increase the power of the entire photovoltaic field. The direct voltage obtained at the output is transformed into three-phase, alternating voltage. Thus transfers energy to the electric power system.
Wind energy technology
A prerequisite for efficient wind energy is the energy potential of wind at a particular location. For large-scale investments (wind farms), it is necessary to measure principal meteorological parameters: wind speed, direction, air temperature, humidity, air pressure, etc. The measurement must be performed for at least one year, and it is excellent for up to four consecutive years. If building only one wind turbine of relatively low power, it is not profitable to analyze. It is advisable to find a place where is no shelter from the direction of the prevailing wind.
In that location, there are no trees or tall buildings near the wind turbine. In any case, the wind turbine should be as high as possible because the wind speed also increases. Systems that involve the production of energy from wind for the needs of an isolated group of consumers are usually of small capacity and must have adequate energy accumulation for the period without wind. Their application is cost-effective where there is no access to the power system, or it is cheaper to apply such a model. These are most often individual systems for supplying small groups of consumers, such as cottages, facilities far from the distribution network, irrigation systems, etc.
On the other hand, large wind farms are an essential branch of the power industry. There are onshore wind farms and offshore wind farms. The key constructive difference between them is in the complexity of fixing wind turbines to the ground. Namely, almost all offshore wind farms use some form of fixed foundation for the bottom.
Hydro energy technology
Most construction solutions for almost all green technology imply relatively easy repeatability of the design, regardless of the power plant location. Quite the opposite is the case with small hydropower plants. Depending on the natural characteristics of the watercourse and the surrounding terrain, as well as the technical conditions for construction on the site, the optimal solution for the construction of each hydropower plant is determined individually. Each hydroelectric power plant is unique.
According to the method of capturing water from watercourses, hydropower plants can be divided into groups. Different combinations of sober and derivation solutions are possible. It is also possible to install a small dam without a large accumulation, but in such a way that the power plant produces as much energy as the current, natural water supply allows.
Significant potentials of biomass can be easily used by applying green tech for combustion in thermal energy production. The type of technology will depend on biomass type – firewood, pellets, briquettes, etc. Biomass combustion systems (boilers and furnaces) are used for thermal energy for heating residential and commercial buildings, and the needs of technological processes in industry and agriculture. The production of electricity from solid biomass is very inefficient and usually involves the use of cogeneration systems. The application of these systems is usually cost-effective only in industrial conditions. Nevertheless, the green tech biomass should be subsidized.
Biogas is formed by the microbiological process of decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. It is a mixture of gases, whose volume is 50 – 70% methane (CH4), 25-45% carbon dioxide (CO2), and small amounts of water vapor 2-7%. In addition to the above, biogas contains other gases such as hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, nitrogen, ammonia, and hydrogen, but in a much smaller proportion.
The application of geothermal resources is preceded by numerous activities with the application of modern research methods. But also techniques and green technologies for conversion into useful energy. Exploitation largely depends on the potential of the geological environment as well as the purpose of the resources. The soil temperature varies significantly in the first few meters, and it reaches the stabilization point at a depth of twenty meters. From that depth and further increases by few degrees every hundred meters. Today’s technologies allow us to exploit geothermal resources to a depth of six km and temperatures not exceeding a few thousand Celsius. Geothermal is used for electricity production, district heating of cities, industrial plants, heating sports-recreational, spa complexes, and homes.